Department of Finance

University of Lagos





Generally, policies and strategies of Nigerian government towards foreign direct investments are shaped by two principal objectives of desire for economic independence and the demand for economic development.  Multi national corporations are expected to bring into Nigeria, foreign capital in the form of technical skills, entrepreneurship, technology and investment fund to boost economic activities thereby, rising the standard of living of Nigerian.


The main issues in this paper relates to understanding the effects and impact of foreign direct investments on the Nigerian economy as well as our ability to attract adequate amounts, sufficient enough to accelerate the pace of our economic growth and development.  From related research and studies, it was revealed that multinational corporations are highly adaptive social agents and therefore, the degree to which they can help in improving economic activities through foreign direct investment will be heavily influenced by the policy choice of the host country.


Secondary data were collected for the period 1970 to 2005.  In order to analyse the data, both econometric and statistical method were used.  Tables were produced in order to create a visual impression of the dependence of Nigeria economy on that of donor countries such as Western Europe and North America.  The economic regression model of ordinary least square was applied in evaluating the relationship between foreign direct investment and major economic indicators such as gross domestic product, gross fixed capital formation and index of industrial production.  The model revealed a positive relationship between foreign direct investment and each of these variables, but that foreign direct investment has not contributed much to the growth and development of Nigeria.  This is evident in reality of enormous repatriation of profits, dividends, contract fees, and interest payments on foreign loans.


The study thus suggest that in order to further improve the economic climate for foreign direct investments in Nigeria, the government must appreciate the fact that the basic element in any successful development strategy should be the encouragement of domestic investors first before going after foreign investors.




In order to seek the highest of return for capital, economists tend to favour the free flow of capital across national boarders.  It is against this backdrop that multinational companies seek investment in foreign countries with reasonable risk.  Nigeria is believed to be a high-risk market for investment because of factors such as bad governance, unstable macro economic policies, investment as a way out of Nigeria’s economic state of underdevelopment.


Since the enthronement of democracy in 1999, the government of Nigeria has taken a number of measures necessary to woo foreign investors into Nigeria.  These measures includes the repeal of laws that are inimical to foreign investment growth, promulgation of investment law, various overseas trips for image laundry by the president, among others.


The need for foreign direct investment is born out of the underdeveloped nature of the Nigeria’s economy that essentially, hindered the pace of her economic development.  Generally, policies and strategies of the Nigerian government towards foreign investments are shaped by two principal objective of the desire for economic independence and the demand for economic development.  There are four basic requirements for economic development namely.


i)        Investment capital

ii)       Technical skills

iii)      Enterprise

iv)      Natural resources.


Without these components, economic and social development of the country would be a process lasting for many years.  The provisions of these first three necessary components present problems for developing countries like Nigeria.  This is because of the fact that there is a low level of income that prevents savings, big enough to stimulate investment capital domestically or, to finance training in modern techniques and methods.  The only way out of this problem is through acceleration of the economy by external sources of money (foreign investment) and technical expertise.  Foreign direct investment is therefore suppose to serve as means of augmenting Nigeria’s domestic resources in order to carryout effectively, her development programmes and raise the standard of living of her people.


According to Nwankwo, G.O.2 factors responsible for the increase need for foreign direct investment by developing countries are:

               o  The world recession of the late 1970s and early 1980s and the resultant fall in the terms of trade of developing countries, which averaged about 11% between 1980 and 1982.

       o      High real interest rate in the international capital market, which adversely affected external indebtedness of these developing countries.

       o      The high external debt burden.

       o      Bad macro economic management, fall in per capital income and fall in domestic savings.


Foreign direct investments consist of external resources, including technology, managerial and marketing expertise and capital.  All these generate a considerable impact on host nation’s production capabilities.  At the current level of gross Domestic Product, the success of governments policies of stimulating the productive base of the economy depends largely on her ability to control adequate amount of foreign direct investments comprising of managerial,capital and technological resources to boost the existing production capabilities.  The Nigerian government had in the past endeavored to provide foreign investors with a healthy climate as well as generous tax incentives, but the result had not been sufficiently encouraging (as we shall see in this research).  Nigeria still requires foreign assistance in the form of managerial, entrepreneurial and technical skills that often accompany foreign direct investments.


Total amount of income that will accrue to capital will be OR0BK0 while labour receives YBR0. Given that Q = F (K, L), the total output in this country is the area under the marginal efficiency of capital (MEC) curve and this output will be distributed between the two factors of production, that is labour and capital.


For foreign direct investment to take place, the returns to capital in the United Kingdom must be less than returns to capital in Nigeria, given that United Kingdom is more endowed with capital utilization In response to this differential in returns to capital, there will be capital movement from the United Kingdom to Nigeria and this will continue until the returns are the same in the two countries. The amount of capital moved from United Kingdom to Nigeria is in the form of foreign direct investment and hence, Nigeria’s stock of capital or investment fund is increased.






2.1.1 PROPONENTS Most analysts believe that national and foreign private sector enterprise, if permitted to operate in a competitive market condition will offer developing countries the best prospects for speedy national economic growth. These analysts however do not view multinational capital as panacea to developing countries. Amongst the proponents of foreign direct investments are Peter Drucker, Harry Johnson, Gerald Mier, Sanjaja Hall, Paul Strcter, Carlos, F, Ludiak, l.A, Manle, .F, Author Nwankwo and many more.


Harry Johnson argued that foreign investments bring to the home country, “a package of cheap capital, advanced technology. Superior knowledge of foreign market for final products and capital goods, immediate inputs and raw materials”. Similarly, Drucker has argued that developing countries need to employ export oriented development strategies in order to meet their foreign exchange and employment requirements and that such orientation is much more likely to succeed if these countries can acquire “capital export markets”. Such markets he maintained are precisely what multinational companies with their worldwide sourcing and marketing can offer. Gerald Mier contends that from the stand profit of national economic benefit, the essence of the case of encouraging the inflow of capital is that the increase in real income resulting from the act of investment is greater than the resultant increase on the income of the investor. This is also the view held by Mactougal when he stated that a moderate inflow of investment in an economy is beneficial.


The chief benefit of foreign direct investment, according to these writers, is the accompanying “package deal” of technical and managerial skill. This may be costly, difficult or impossible to obtain in other alternative investment means. The less developed a country is, the less able it is as a rule to utilize patents, technical advice and contract management assistance without taking the whole package. This view was supported by Penrose (1961) and Chenery (1966).


2.1.2 ANTI-PROPONENTS — some analysts (known as the dependence school) are strongly opposed to pro foreign direct investment perspectives. Their arguments are based on series of studies and research carried out. Such analysts include Dos Santos, Ronald Multer, Cardose, Euzo Falleto, Dr. Fashola and many others.


Theofonio Dos Santos argued that developing countries’ economic difficulties do not originate in their isolation from advanced countries, but that the most powerful obstacle to their development came from the way they are joined to their international system. Multer, R maintained that multinational corporations transfer technologies to developing countries that result in mass unemployment; that they monopolize rather than inject new capital resources; that they displace rather than generate local business and that they worsen rather than ameliorate the country’s balance of payment.


Overall, the dependent school rejects the pro foreign direct investment analysts’ depiction of the benefits derived from participation in the international economy. Dr Fashola, for example argued that most of the policies adopted by Nigeria since the SAP era are qualitative in nature and as such are yet to be effective in turning round for the better economic fortunes of the nation.


More recently, a new body of literature emerged and challenged the pro-foreign direct investment optimist about the long-term negotiating and benefiting prospects of the world. What might be labeled the structuralized school has argued that developing countries may in fact experience a long-term decrease in their power over high technology manufacturing system. Their arguments were based on what scholars learnt empirically about the behaviour and effects of multinational companies in developing countries. Results of some of their studies are.

i)      Bornshier and Jean in a multiple regression analysis of variance in growth of GNP per capital in 76 developing countries (Nigeria inclusive) between 1960 to 1975, found out that their flow of foreign direct investment were associated negatively with growth in income per capital. Other studies by Michael Dolan and Brain Tomlin appeared basically to confirm Bormshier’s observations.


        Also, Robert Johnson in his regression analysis of growth per GNP in 72 countries between 1960 to 1978, found stocks of foreign direct investment to be positively associated with economic growth at statistically significant level for relatively advanced economies. He therefore concluded that once the size of a developing country is taken into account, the level of direct investment has no consistent effect on growth.


ii)     Vincent Mahler (1976) carried out an analysis of 68 least developed countries and found a statistically significant association between income concentrated in the 6 percent to 20 percent of the population and foreign direct investment in manufacturing but not in mining and agriculture.


iii)    Several studies were also conducted to estimate the economic desirability of the technology brought to developing countries by multinational corporations. It was found that royalty payments, technical tees, tie-in-clause leading to the purchase of over priced immediate goods, export restrictions and other limitations had resulted in technology acquisition during most of the sixties to become major burden


In conclusion, considering the wide range of conflicting empirical studies on how foreign direct investment in developing countries affect the rate of aggregate growth, distribution of income, employment and some non-economic indicators like culture and political structures, one cannot draw conclusions from them with any minimal acceptable level of confidence. Perhaps the warning of Arthur Nwankwo is appropriate in this context where he warned that no nation could provide for the welfare of its citizens as long as its economy is fettered. More so, many studies have shown that multinational corporations are highly adaptive social agents and therefore, the degree to which foreign direct investment helps or hurts a developing country will be heavily influenced by the policy choice of the host country.






The under listed variables are used in building the model.


       FDI                  Foreign Direct Investments

       GFCF                Gross Fixed Capital Formation

       GDP                 Gross Domestic Product

       llP                    Index of Industrial Production


The models will therefore be:

          GPD = b0 + b1FDI + u…………..(equation 1)

          GFCF b0 + b1FDI + u       ……………    (equation 2)

          lIP = bo + b1FDI +u         …………….(equation 3)


These models, which are used in gauging and assessing the performance of the economy, make the economic indicators functions of the level of cumulative foreign direct investment. If we assume a linear relationship (logarithm), then the model equations become.


          Log GPD       = b0 + b1Iog FDI + u………..(equation 1)

          Log GFCF      = b0 + b1log FDI + u…………(equation 2)

            Log lIP         = b0 + b1log FDI + u…………(equation 3)


From  the model


       Log GOP                       =   b0 + b1 FDI

       Log GOP                       =   0.159 + 1.237 log FDI

       Standard Error (Se)       =   0.158

       Correlation coefficient (r)=  0.99

       t1                                =    1.03

       t2                                =   0.037


3.2 Interpretation of Results

The first noticeable thing about the above result is that Gross Domestic Product is positively related to foreign direct investments.  The responsiveness of GDP to FDI to 1.237 indicates that a one percent increase in foreign direct investment leads to a more than proportionate increase of 1.24 percent in gross domestic product.


A correlation coefficient of 0.99 indicates a very strong relationship between economic growth (measured by GDP) and foreign direct investments, thus leading to the rejection of our alternative hypothesis and acceptance of our null hypothesis, which states that there is a relationship between foreign, direct investment and economic growth.


Also, a test of the significance of the intercept and gradient of our model is found to be statistically significant through a test of standard error. Thus given that:

     H0 : a = 0

     H1 : a + 0, for significance of intercept



        H0 = 0

        H1 : B + 0, for significance of gradient.


For t1 since the computed value of 1.02 is less than 2.042 (value from t table), we reject H1 and accept H0 which states that there is a relationship between foreign direct investment and economic growth. For t2 since the computed value of 0.037 is less than 2.042 (value from t table), we reject H1 and accept H0 which states that there is a relationship between foreign direct investment and economic growth.


From the model

          Log GFCF                        =        b0 + b1 FDI

          Log GFCF                        =        0781 + 0.873 log FDI

          Standard Error (Se)         =        0.199

          Correlation coefficient (r)=        0.95

          Tl                                   =        9.41  

          t2                                  =        41.57


3.3   Interpretation of Results


The results from this model shows that there exist a direct functional relationship between foreign direct investment and standard of living, such that the elasticity of gross fixed capital formation with respect to foreign direct investment is 0.873.


A correlation coefficient of 0.95 indicates a very strong relationship between foreign direct investment and gross fixed capital formation (which could be used as a measure of standard of living). Also, a test of the significance of the intercept and gradient of our model is found to be statistically significant through a test of standard error. Thus given that

                         H0 : a = 0

                         H1: a + 0, for significance of intercept



                         H0: B = 0


H1 : B + 0, for significance of gradient

For t1 since the computed value of 9.41 is greater than 2.042 (value from 1 table), we reject H0 and accept H, which states that the inflow of foreign direct investment has not affected the standard of living of Nigerians. For 12 since the computed value of 41.57 is greater than 2.042 (value from t table), we reject H0 and accept H, which states that the inflow of foreign direct investment has not affected the standard of living of Nigerians.



3.4    Interpretation of Results


The above results show a positive relationship between foreign direct investment and industrial production. The elasticity of the index of industrial production with respect to foreign direct investments of 0.14 indicates that one percent increase in foreign direct investment will lead to fourteen percent increase in the level of industrial output.


The coefficient of explanatory variable of foreign direct investment is also significant, statistically at 8.5 percent. The correlation coefficient of 0.78 shows high positive relationship between foreign direct investment and index of industrial output.


Also, a test of the significance of the intercept and gradient of our model is found to be statistically significant through a test of standard error. Thus given that:

                         Ho:         a = 0

                         H1 : a + 0, for significance of intercept


                         H0 : B     = 0

                         H1 : B + 0, for significance of gradient.


For t1 since the computed value of 936 is greater than 2.042 (value from t table), we reject H0 and accept H, which states that the inflow of foreign direct investment is not associated with the rate of increase in index of industrial production. For t2 since the computed value of 7.05 is greater than 2.042 (value from t table), we reject H0 and accept H1



4.1   CONCLUSION        

Given the above situation and the fact that Nigeria’s economic recovery efforts and growth requires major private sector investment in modern equipments that can industrialize the agricultural sector and the economy as a whole, then the Nigeria’s foreign investment policy should move towards attracting and encouraging more inflows of foreign capital by moving ahead with economic programmes that includes measures easier set-up and expansion of businesses.


In the years ahead, Nigeria (and many other African and third world countries) in trying to pave way for more foreign direct investment faces greater problems, especially with poor external image problem and particularly the concept of European Economic Unity that includes Eastern Europe. This translate to the fact that investment flows that would ordinarily have come from countries of surplus capital like Western Europe to capital deficient countries like Nigeria would now be going to poor European Economic Communities which includes Eastern Europe. Except African countries are able to adopt new strategies, this development will further compound the crises of under-development confronting countries like Nigeria. A very important challenge of management in the coming years would therefore be the development of indigenous technology and entrepreneurial capabilities as the involvement of multinational companies in our economy may dwindle as a result of new bigger and attractive opportunities that are likely to emerge from Europe.


With the up and down movement of foreign direct investment, Nigeria needs to juxtapose foreign investment with domestic investment in order to maintain high levels of income and employment. The problem therefore does not lie so much with the magnitude of investment flows to Nigeria as with the form in which it Is given. We could emphasize that foreign investment cannot contribute much to the economic development of Nigeria if it is directed primarily to capital supply than to investment projects. Foreign investment can be very effective if it is directed at improving and expanding managerial and labour skills. In other words, the task of helping a “poor beggar” can be made less generous and yet more fruitful if it is directed at teaching him a trade rather than giving him food to eat.


The analysis presented in this work does not offer a simple version of multinational corporation investment in Nigeria because the picture in complex. Foreign direct investment can make a valuable contribution to third world countries’ development in general and Nigeria in particular, but not all foreign direct investment doe so. Greater flows of investment fund’s climate in the Nigeria economy are important but a good investment climate is not synonymous with what multinational corporation prizes most.


In conclusion, in order to further improve the climate for foreign investment in Nigeria, the government must appreciate the fact that the basic element in any successful development strategy should be to encourage domestic investors first before going after foreign investors, considering the fact that they constitute the bulk of investment activities in the economy. Thus, the most effective strategy for attracting foreign investment is to make the Nigerian economy very attractive to Nigerian investors first.



The following policies are hereby recommended to policy makers and government, if it is desired that foreign investment contribute to the growth and development of Nigeria.


qThe Nigerian government should encourage the inflows of foreign direct investment and contact policy institutions that can ensure the transparency of the operations of foreign companies within the economy.


qIn evaluating foreign direct investment, the screening process should be simplified and improved upon. For example, export investment projects that consistently generate positive contribution to national income can be screened separately and swiftly, while projects in import competing industries should be screened separately.


qEfforts should be made to engage in joint ventures that are beneficial to the economy. Joint ventures provide for a set of complementary or reciprocating matching undertakings, which may include a variety of packages ranging from providing the capital to technical cooperation. The government should intensify the policy to acquire, adopt, generate and use the acquired technology to develop its industrial sectors.


qEfforts should continue, this time with more vigor at ensuring consistency in policy objectives and instruments through a good implementation strategy as well as good sense of discipline, understanding and cooperation among the policy makers.


qThe Nigerian government needs to come up with more friendly economic policies and business environment, which will, attracts FDI into virtually all the sectors of the economy.


qThe Nigerian government needs to embark on capital project, which will enhance the infrastructural facilities with which foreign investors can build on.


qThe current indigenization policy should be pursued to the letter as a way of preventing absolute foreign ownership in the key sector of the economy.


qThe Nigeria government should also carry out the liberalization of all the sector of the economy so as to attract foreign investors, so that the current efficiency and growth noticed in the telecommunication sector can also be enjoyed there.



qFor Nigeria to generate more foreign direct investments, efforts should be made at solving the problems of government involvement in business; relative closed economy; corruption; weak public institutions; and poor external image. It is therefore advised that the government continues with its privatization programme, external image laundry, seriousness and openness in the fight against corruption, and signing of more trade agreements.





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MARCH, 2013.













I dedicate this work to my family for being a source of inspiration to me, especially to my parents Mr. and Mrs. Elias Ani Enemuo




I want to specifically thank everyone that I cited their work this article. I really appreciate. I also want to thank my seminar lecturer Mrs. Iremeka for giving me the privilege of writing this topic. And to all my 2015 class of Banking and Finance (‘015 NABAFS) for a being a family for me away from home.

There is a say that honor should be given to whom honor is due, I thank the Head of Department, Banking and Finance, Associate Professor J.U.J Onwumere for creating a conducive learning atmosphere for us  and creating a conducive learning environment and taking us all in the department as his children.

I thank every one of you for all you efforts to see to the success of this work, this work wouldn’t have seen the day light if not for a collective effort. Once more, thank you all.








This work “FELLOWSHIP GROUPS IN OUR TERTIARY INSTITUTION-A CASE STUDY IN UNEC” is a very critical topic that ought to have been looked into before now. I am so happy to be one of the few students to be writing about it. Firstly, everyone that is faced with the word “fellowship” will only think about the religious activities that is mostly associated with the Christian alone, which included me. But this work gave me the opportunity to see fellowship from a different perspective. During the course of this research, it took us into different definitions of fellowship by different authorities in other to get the real meaning of what is to be written about. It took us to the scope of fellowship, by scope; i mean the various areas that fellowship is expected to cover. And it includes fellowship in the academic field, fellowship in the sense of confraternity, fraternity and fellowship in the religious sense. I tied to buttress more on the fellowship activities in the religious aspect, because it is what is dominant in our UNEC today. I also talked on their various histories where necessary, gave different definitions on them and how they affect the life of the students in UNEC, both positively and negatively. The article is good and is recommended for every student in the country and Nigerians at large; for better Nigerian tertiary institutions.




Title Page.     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .       i

Dedication.     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .    ii

Acknowledgement.     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     iii  

Preface.     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .    iv

Table of Content.     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .        v

Chapter One

1:1 The Term Fellowship.     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .       1

1:2 Meaning of Fellowship.     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .    1

1:3 The Scope of Fellowship.     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .       1

1:4 Fellowships as Religious Groups.     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .       2

1:5 Fellowship in the Academic Field.     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     2


2:1 Meaning of Tertiary Institutions.     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .        3

2:2 Brief Histories of Nigeria Tertiary Institutions.     .     .     .     .     .     .     .          3

2:3 The Life of a UNEC Student.     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .       .                3


3:1 The Confraternity (Origin) .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .   7

3:2 The Meaning of Confraternity.     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .    7

3:3 Confraternities in Our Tertiary Institutions.     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .  8

3:4 Confraternities in UNEC.     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .    .  9

3:5:1 Effects of Cult Group as a Fellowship Group in UNEC.     .     .     .     .     .    9

3:5:2 Causes of Cultism in UNEC.     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .    9

3:5:3 Consequences of Cultism in UNEC.     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     10

3:6 Solutions to Cult Fellowship in UNEC.     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .   10

3:7 Conclusions.     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .   10


4:1 The Fraternal Fellowship Groups.     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .   . 12

4:2 Meaning of Fraternity.     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .   .  12

4:3 Fraternal Brotherhoods in UNEC.     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .    .12

4:4 Effects of Fraternal Fellowships in UNEC.     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .    .    . 13


5:1 Religion.     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .    14

5:2 Types of Religion.     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .      14

5:3:1 Religious Societies in UNEC.     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .    .    15

5:3:2 The Islamic (Muslim) Community.     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .    .         15

5:3:3 The Christian Community.     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .    .    .     16

5:4:1 Effects of Religious Fellowships in UNEC.     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     17

5:4:2 Positive Effects.     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .    .    .    .   17

5:4:3 Negative Effects.     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .    .    .    . 18


6:1 The Limiting Factors.     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .    .   19

6:2 Conclusions.     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .    .    19

REFERENCES.     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .    .    21







            The word fellowship will strike different meaning to different people. It all depends from the perspective from which one is speaking from.

The term “FELLOWSHIP GROUPS IN OUR TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS-A CASE STUDY IN UNEC” is a very crucial issue and I am really honored to be writing about it.

Fellowship plays a very important role in the life of an individual. I better live that for another chapter.

Firstly, let us get the different meanings of fellowship that we have, though it is not limited to the ones provided below.



            Fellowship have many definitions, in this piece of work, we are going to look at some of the definitions by different authorities.

1.            According to the Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary, the 7th edition, it gave different meanings to fellowship which includes

A.    A feeling of friendship between people who do things together or share some interest.

B.     An organized group of people which share an interest or belief.

C.    (Especially British) the position of being a senior member of a college or a university.

D.    The state of being a member of an organized academic or a professional organization.

2.                  According to the, it gave different definitions of fellowship which includes

A.    The condition of sharing similar interest, ideas or experience as by reason of profession, religion or nationality.

B.     A society of people sharing mutual interest, experience and some other activities.



            By scope of fellowship, we try to look into the different meaning of fellowship, by looking at the different meaning of fellowship; we will now look at the different areas that were covered by fellowship. And based on the different meanings of fellowship, one can easily infer that fellowship is talking about two things, which includes

1.      Fellowship as a group of people who share similar ideologies and interest and do things together. It could be doing things that could affect the immediate society negatively or positively.

2.      Fellowship that is being associated with the academic field that is either someone is in a position of being a senior member of a college or a university or he is a member or associate member of an academic or a professional organization.



            When we talk about fellowship being a religious group, we begin to look at the various religious associations in the tertiary institutions, their meetings and their various activities.

It is how people who share the same interest and ideologies come together to worship their god and offer sacrifices to their god or the supernatural being.



            The fellowship in the academic field. By the word ACADEMY, we mean a school or college which is always in a formal setting. By being in a position of s senior member in a college or a university, it could be a position of associate professor, or the person might even be a professor. Like we have in our UNEC today.

When we talk about being a member of an academic or professional organization, one could be a fellow of the Institute of Chartered Accountant of Nigeria (ICAN), one can also be a fellow of the Nigeria Institute of Management (NIM) or a fellow of the Institute of chartered Bankers of Nigeria (ICBN) 




            By tertiary institution, we mean a college that provides education for people aged 16years and older which could also stand in as a university. It is the academic institution that offers the highest level of education in any country, from the first degree which is a bachelor’s degree that is awarded either after a four year or a five year program, depending on the program which an individual is pursuing.

            So, it became of paramount to get the meaning of tertiary institution known in other for the ordinary man or the lay man out there, they get the meaning of that which the piece is trying to pass across. That is to say, the meaning of it what given for the ordinary man out there to understand it properly and to also guide every reader that comes across it to know what the text portrays.



            Looking back, one will realize that the history of our tertiary institution dates back to our pre-independence.

It all started at the University College, Ibadan, which was then affiliated to the University of London. At independence, the tertiary institution of our great country Nigeria kicked off with the first indigenous university, known as the University of Nigeria, Nsukka, which UNEC is an extension of UNN with five faculties in it.

            It was DR Nnamdi Azikiwe that pioneered establishment of an indigenous institution. UNN was referred to as an independent gift by Dr Nnamdi Azikiwe. The university college Ibadan later changed to University of Ibadan after independence. Since then, so many universities have been springing up in the country, that at present, Nigeria has over 100 tertiary institutions to its credit, that’s both government and private owned.



            I could remember vividly that, when I first got admission into the University Of Nigeria, Enugu Campus (UNEC), the advice I got from my parents was that of, “my son, make sure you belong to a fellowship group in school and identify yourself with Christ”

When we got to school, we were also told by our senior colleague at school that the life of an ordinary UNEC student is that which just revolves round three dimension which is;


            It was after we termed it the triangular student that we over heard our neighbor talking about it, we went over to their room to talk about it, they also gave it another name which is all new. Something, different from what we called it earlier.

            It was then that it was called the complete life cycle of a UNEC student with the argument being based on the ground that not all students live the three way life style that was illustrated earlier. This was how the diagram below came about.



We later tried to include the term FELLOWSHIP in place of the church, because not every single UNEC student attends church, that’s because the limited number of churches we have inside UNEC, the students that cannot find their home church  inside school try to associate with the fellowship groups that happened to be non denominational. That is in other to enable to enable the fellowship with brethren. It could be negative or positive fellowship group.



This will now bring us to the various fellowship groups we have in UNEC. Whether it is a group that adds positively to the life of the ordinary UNEC student or the one that adds negatively it.

We have to look at them and their impact in the student and the school at large.





            During the ancient days, the word “CONFRATERNITY” is always associated with the Holy Roman Catholic Church. But today, confraternity is associated with violence.

A confraternity is normally a Roman Catholic or Orthodox organization of lay people created for the purpose of promoting special works of Christian charity or piety and approved by the church hierarchy.

            An Arch-confraternity is a franchise of confraternities, able to establish different groups using the same names and rules. Such as the “Confraternity Of The Holy Child Jesus”  “Confraternity Of The Lord” The Confraternity Of The Cross” The Confraternity Of The Society Of St Jude” to mention but a few.

            Then in the ancient days, what the present day catholic calls the pious society is being referred to as confraternities. Each confraternity organization has a set of rules or by-laws to follow which every member promises to abide to, even though the Catholic Church works in harmony with the confraternities. These rules are not religious vows, instead a mere set of rule that was set up to govern the confraternity organization as approved by the church.

These is also applicable to the St Mulumba Catholic Chaplaincy (SMCC) UNEC as most of the societies still exist and since it is inside a university campus, all the societies happens to be under the Nigerian Federation Of Catholic Students (NFCS) which  I happened to be a member.



According to the Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary. Confraternity means “a group of people who join together especially for a religious purpose or to help other people”

Also, the also gave several definitions for confraternity which have been given below and other definitions by other authorities which includes;

1.               A group of men united for some particular purpose, especially Christian laymen organized for religious or charitable services, brotherhood.

2.               A brotherhood, especially a group of men bound by a common goal or Interest.

3.               A lay of brotherhood devoted to some purpose especially to religious or    charitable services.

4.               A society or organization, especially of men united for some purpose or in some profession.



            Confraternity in Nigeria began as a term for fraternities in the American college sense, university based social group but the term have spread and changed to become in many cases, used by street gangs that have been accused of wide spread crime which later turned into cult activities.

A cult can be said to emanate from a great and excessive admiration or belief in a person of idea. This could be manifested in rituals, praises, songs, worship and chants. It is a questionable practice that may be difficult to dislodge even with superior argument.

The cultism in Nigeria was originated by an Ibadan professor, Wole Soyinka in 1952, the main objective included to abolish convention and to end tribalism and elitism in the then University College, Ibadan.

            In 1952, a future noble laureate, a future noble prize winning author, Wole Soyinka and a group of six friends formed the Pirate Confraternity at the elite University College, Ibadan. Then, part of the University of London. According to the Pirates, “the magnificent seven” as they called themselves that the University was populated with wealthy students associated with the colonial power and a few poorer students striving in manner and dress code to be accepted by the more advantaged students. While social life was dictated by tribal affiliation.

The Pirates confraternity proved popular among students even after the original students members moved on.

            Membership was open to any promising male student regardless of tribe and race. But selection was stringent and most application was denied. For almost 20years, the Pirates were the only confraternity in the Nigeria campuses.

            Although conflicts developed within the Pirates group as a result of ideological differences which led to the splitting and formation of several confraternities which went rogue in different campuses in the country. Example of the cult group that was formed is the one founded by Bolaji Carew, which is known as the Buccaneers, which is also known as the “NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF SEA LORDS”. There also several other cult groups that sprung up, it includes the ones listed below but not limited to it;

1.            The supreme Eiye Confraternity

2.            The Vikings

3.            The Black Axe which was founded in 1984 at UNIBEN.

The ladies were not left out as they also formed their own cult groups which includes;

1.      Daughters of Jezebel

2.      Black Brassieres

3.      Black Ladies Club

4.      White Angels and so on.



When one steps into UNEC as an academic community, without looking critically into the system, one might be mistaken to say that cult activities do not exist. But the truth is, they exist. At least, some of my course mates and me have been approached to become members whom we turned down. But due to the size of UNEC and the level of security in it, they operate underground, they try to operate unnoticed. When I try to inquire about the origin of cult groups in UNEC, I was made to understand that it came from ENUGU STATE UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY (ESUT). And that’s the point they operate from.

So, based on the meaning of fellowship that we have, I can out rightly say that cult group is also a fellowship group in UNEC. Although, it plays a negative role in campus and their activities are restricted.



No doubt, cult group have effects on the life of the ordinary student in UNEC. It will be important to look at its effect, but firstly, let us look at the causes of cult activities in UNEC and other tertiary institutions.



The causes of cult activities include the ones listed below but not limited to them, and they are:

1.      Lack of academic, social and recreational amenities: There is gross shortage of social amenities in the universities.

2.      Failure of socialization agencies: The socialization agencies such as the family, church, mosque, school and some others have become monumental failure in their basic responsibilities to the individual.

3.      Peer influence: There is no gain saying the fact that the greatest influence of a student involvement in cult activities is peer influence.

4.      Cultural factor: There are many traditional secret societies in African culture, initiation ceremonies by campus cult take after them. Many cultists in our universities are children of men of wealth and influence who also belong to these cult groups in our societies.

5.      Economic factor: The general economic hardship in the country has exacerbated cult activities in the universities as students that cannot meet up with the demands in campus will do anything just to be like the other students in campus.



Some of the consequences of cult activities in the university system include;

1.      Spending extra years: Student cultist usually spend extra years to graduate in campus because of their involvement in cult related activities.

2.      Irregular academic calendar: Violent and deadly clashes between rival cult groups in campus result to closure of the university for weeks or months, like what happens at the RIVERS STATE UNIVERSITY OF SCIENES AND TECHNOLOGY (RSUST).

3.      Insecurity in campus: Cult activities in the university have resulted to insecurity within the campus as students live in fear of being harassed or molested.

4.      Psychological disorientation: Being a member of a cult group makes a student to be psychologically disoriented, maladjusted and unbalanced.



After looking at some of the causes and consequences of cult activities as a fellowship group in UNEC, it is of paramount to look at some of the solutions to the problems posed by this cult groups. And some of those solutions include:

1.            Just say no: Students should just learn to have the courage to say no to entreaties by cult members to become members when the need arise or even report them to the relevant authorities.

2.            Student vigilante group: Student should form a mass oriented and violent free vigilante group as a counter force to the cult groups.

3.            Student unionism should be encouraged: Vibrant student’s unionism should not only be encouraged in UNEC, but should be made to strive by the authority.

4.            Security consciousness: Staffs and students should be security conscious at all times.

5.            Trained security personnel: There should be training and retraining of our university security personnel for improved performance.



             Even though some people may argue that not all cult activities are evil and that members of cult are usually their brothers keepers as they are expected to help their indigent members when the need arise.

            Some also argue that they act as bouncers in parties and are employed to maintain peace and security at other social functions.

But it is axiomatic to state that cultism has wrecked humongous havoc not only on universities, but also on the larger Nigerian society as the work has shown.




            By virtue of the meaning of fellowship, the fraternity stands in to be called a fellowship group. That’s because their activities also includes the gathering of brethren that has similar ideologies and common interest.



            The term fraternity is coined from a Latin word “FRATER” which means brother.

A fraternal organization is a brotherhood or a type of social organization whose members freely associate for a mutually beneficial purpose such as social, professional or honorary principles.

Several authorities gave several definitions of fraternity, few of which we are going to be looking into

            According to the Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary, it gave different meanings of fraternity which includes;

1.      A group of people sharing the same profession, interest or belief.

2.      A club for a group of male students at an American college or university which an informal name-frat.

3.      A feeling of friendship and support that exist between the members of a group


The also gave different definitions of fraternity which includes;

1.      A group of people sharing common profession or interest.

2.      A male student society in a university or college.



            There exist several fraternal brotherhoods in UNEC, but most times, they try to operate at a very low key that people hardly know the even exist. That’s because the ordinary UNEC student do not even know what they are actually into or what their main aim of existence is, and can easily mistaken them for a cult group.

            After a brief research, I was able to get hold on to few fraternal fellowship groups in UNEC. I inquired on why they hardly make themselves known to the university community; I learnt that some times, people mistake them for cult groups. So in other to protect their interest and that of their family to the outside world, they prefer to operate and exist secretly.


            Irrespective of the fact that some of these fraternal fellowship groups try to operate underground, some students still know and are aware of their existence in UNEC. Some of the fraternal fellowship groups in UNEC includes but not limited to the ones listed below;

1.      Alpha world Fraternal Brotherhood, Nigeria

2.      Beta Sigma Fraternity, Nigeria

3.      Kegite Club of Nigeria (palm wine club)

            While some fraternity groups are yet to be noticed in our university community, some groups such as they Beta Sigma still add to the development of the school community.

No doubt, any one that walks into the school premise, that’s at the entrance of the UNEC gate, the bus stop that was erected there for relaxation was erected by the Beta Sigma Fraternity. The taxi bay that is still in the same vicinity where passengers sit and wait for cabs was also erected by the same Beta Sigma Fraternity, Nigeria. Even the tutorial they organize for their members is also an impact toward the good of the society.




5:1     RELIGION

            The fact that when one hears the word “FELLOWSHIP” before this period, the persons mind will be that of fellowship amongst brethren, which includes me, before the research I did on the term fellowship, I only associate fellowship with churches alone, after I did this work, my perception changed. That is associating the term fellowship to the Christian community alone without knowing that the term has a very large scope that need to be individually looked into.

So, on that note, we need to look at broad view of religion and the types of religions we have in our tertiary institutions with UNEC being a case study. Firstly, let us look at the meaning of religion. Just like every other social science field, religion have no universally accepted definition, both for the purpose of our research work, we have to look at some of the definitions I was able to lay hands on.

1.            Roy defined religion as ‘mans search for extra-human divine, super natural or spiritual assistance in achieving a sense of security”

2.            Ajayi also sees religion as “that which brings or expresses  the ultimate relationship between the creator and his creatures”

3.            The oxford advanced learners diction gave several definitions of religion which includes;

A.          The belief in the existence of a god or gods and the activities that are connected with the worship of them.

B.           One of the systems of faith that are based in the existence of a particular god or gods.

C.          A particular interest or influence that is very important in your life.



Let us briefly look into some of the world’s religion and later return to the ones that is dominant in the present day UNEC. Just like there are different cultures in the world, so also, is there so many religion. At this point, let us begin to examine some of them. And they include;

1.      JUDAISM

This is a Jewish religion, it is one of the oldest of the world’s great religion and it is the mother of both Islam and Christianity. That means, Christianity and Islam is an offshoot of Judaism. Moses was said to be the founder of Judaism, but like Islam and Christianity, Judaism was not really founded and built on one towering personality.



Christianity is one of the world’s greatest religions. Christ is the founder and head of the Christian faith and it is based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ. The tenets of Christianity is recorded in the book of books called “THE HOLY BIBLE”

3.      ISLAM

This religion was founded by Prophet Mohammed in the 7th century BC. The word ISLAM means submission to the Will of God. And the followers of Islam are called Muslims.

4.      BUDDHISM

Buddhism is one of the many religions in India. It was founded by an Indian man by name Siddhartha in the year 500BC; this later became the chief religion of Thailand, Korea, and Sri-Lanka, China etc.

Buddhism practices Confucianism. Like Christianity, Buddhism consists of sects with varying practice and belief. Some of these sects are so different that they appear to look like another type of religion.



            After having looked at religion as a whole, It will be paramount to look deeper into the two types of religion that is dominant in our tertiary institutions which is Islam and Christianity. And also look at their activities in UNEC.



            This is no doubt the second largest religion in Nigeria with the northern part of Nigeria being the domineering ethnic group in the religion. Based on research, it was shown that the presence of Muslim in UNEC is as old as UNEC itself.

Most or all of the activities of the Muslim brethren is done at their secretariat, which they also use as their mosque. The holy or sacred book that the Muslim brethren us is known as “THE QUARAN” The secretariat is located in one of  the boys hostel known as KENNETH DIKE HOSTEL, also known as “IJ”. The Muslim brethren also organize tutorials for their members. And most importantly, just like every other mosque, the one inside UNEC observes every of their praying hour and all their ways and style of praying is also observed here in UNEC.

            The Muslim fellowship in UNEC is no doubt one of the most organized fellowship groups in UNEC. Unlike Christianity, the Islamic religion in UNEC just has one praying point in UNEC where all their members assemble at every praying hour to offer prayers to God



            The Christian community is no doubt the largest religious group in Nigeria. Also, Christians is about one-third of the world population. Even in our present day UNEC, the Christian faith out numbers the Muslim community.

            Christian religion is the belief system of those who are followers of Jesus Christ, whom was believed to be in incarnate Son of God and savior of the human kind. It is synonymously identified as Christianity which is identified as “The religion that traces its origin to Jesus of Nazareth whom it affirms to be the chosen one (Christ) of God”. The followers of this religion are called Christians. The sacred or holy book that they use is known as the “HOLY BIBLE” and the place or point where they worship and offer sacrifice to their God is known as “CHURCH”

In our present day UNEC, there are several sects of the Christian faith which can also be called different denominations. And these different Christian denominations try to represent the interest of their mother church here in campus, though some of them claim to be non-denomination. Some of the Christian fellowship we have in UNEC includes the ones listed below;

1.      National Federation of Catholic Students (NFCS): This represents those that worship with the Holy Roman Catholic Church.

2.      Anglican Students Fellowship (ASF): this fellowship is mostly made up of those that worship with the Anglican Communion.

3.      Believers Love World Campus Fellowship (BLWCF): This is made up of members that are mostly worshipers of Christ Embassy.

4.      New Covenant Family (NCF): This is mostly made up of those that worship with Dominion City.

5.      The Abiding Word Gathering (TAWG): This is made up of those that worship at the Abiding Word Ministry.

6.      Redeemed Campus Fellowship (RCF): It is mostly made up with members that worship with the Redeemed Christian Church of God.

7.      Winners Campus Fellowship (WCF): This is mostly made up of members that worship with the Living Faith Church.

This is to mention few because the number of Christian fellowship groups in UNEC are too numerous to mention.

OH!!! Lest I forget some of the fellowship groups that are non-denomination, they include;

1.      Students Christian Movement (SCM)

2.      Students Christian Union

3.      Christ Ambassadors Student Outreach (CASOR)



At this point, we need to look at some of the effects of religious fellowships in UNEC. This includes the positive and the negative aspect of their existence.



The positive effects of religious fellowship groups in UNEC includes the following but not limited to them.

1.      Area of moral and social control: This assertion is true to any religion in the world. It is not just a feature that is associated to Christianity and Islam alone.

The moral laws and ethical conduct that is prescribed by the supreme one tries to curb the excesses of students for example; A Christian student in UNEC that knows the commandments of God will know that cheating in an exam hall is stealing and he or she will like to keep to the laws in the scripture that says “Thou shall not steal” there by abstaining from cheating in an examination hall.

It also helps in making the students to be law abiding in the university and make them to keep to the rules and regulations of the university community. That is to say, the religious societies in campus play a very important role in the maintenance laws and order in UNEC.

2.      As an antidote for fear and insecurity: The fear of the unknown and that of the known is one of the major problems of humanities. Religious societies in the school environment give students the spirit of boldness, thereby, making them not to be afraid of cult activities and other social vices in UNEC.

3.      The area of life associated problems: Religion tries to explain certain problems in the society. So in UNEC, some students find it difficult to read, understand and retain what they have read. And some students are so unfortunate that after having the feeling that they performed very well in an examination, they end up with poor result. So religious in UNEC tries to help explain these problems and prescribe possible solutions to those problems.

4.      In uniting students: Religion in the university community serves as a force that unites students from various facets of life that is by fellowshipping with brethren, they live as one family.

5.      In comforting and consolation: Religious activities in UNEC serve as a comforter and a source of consolation to the students during their time of misfortune. Such as failure in examination, loss of one’s loved one, etc.

6.      In love, peace and accommodation: Religious activities in UNEC enjoin students love one another as prescribed in the bible, to be ones brother’s keeper and tolerate one another. And it also makes the students to be accommodating when the need arise.



            In spite of the entire positive role that the fellowship activities of the various religious groups play in UNEC, it still has some negative role which includes the ones listed below but not limited to them;

1.      Religion and division: In spite of the positive contribution of religious activities in UNEC, it is still seriously used as a disintegrating factor among various Christian denomination in UNEC and sometimes between the Muslims and the Christians. This is referred to as division in religious circle.

2.      Conflict and violence: Some times, there happens to be clash of interest among the various religious societies in UNEC or between various Christian denominations, thereby leading to conflict and violence in UNEC.

3.      Political tension: Religious fellowship activities in UNEC sometimes, cause political tension. In the sense that, during various departmental and faculty elections, even the SUG elections; the various religious fellowship groups campaigns for their own member, which will in turn lead to exchange of words which could be directly or indirectly channeled to the victim. Ending up causing political tension in UNEC.

4.      Discrimination: The religious fellowship activities in UNEC cause discrimination to some extent among the various Christian denominations or among the Christians and the Muslims. The members try to be associating only with their members.

And in some fellowships groups, the disregard the poor students and respect the other students that looks wealthy, that is; the students that came from wealth homes are giving preferential treatment.



            The  fellowship activities in UNEC, in spite of the success they have recorded or they are yet to record in winning members over to their fellowship groups in school, they still have some limiting factors which includes;

1.      The school laws: One will find out that in UNEC, the various fellowship groups are confined to certain laws in the university community that prevents them from engaging in radical evangelisms such as the time the fellowship hour is expected to last, that the fellowship program is not expected to run throughout the night without security clearance. The visiting hours in the hostel that is restricted only to specific hours time is also a hindrance to success and continuous existence and growth of the different fellowship in UNEC.

2.      The venue for fellowship: In getting to UNEC on fellowship days and Sundays in particular, one will realize that the various religious groups in UNEC are limited to certain venues for their fellowship activities, thereby, not giving them enough time to fellowship and worship their god/God in other to give way for another group to use the same venue for their own activity.

Also, not all fellowship groups in UNEC have a secretariat to their credit. It also limits their activities in UNEC.

3.      Lack of fund: For the singular fact that it is a university community that is made up of students that live on allowances they get from parents and some lecturers that are salary earners. It is enough to justify for the fellowships state of lack of fund. So, most fellowship groups in UNEC survive based on what the students are able to give as offertory and the tithe they pay from the allowances they get from their parents and guardian. The fund they get from the students is not always enough, so they are compelled to managing it.



            The role of fellowship activities in the life of a student can never be over emphasized; it plays a very important role. So, in other to have a better university community that is free of social vices, I call on the university authority to look into those limiting factors that hinder the activities of the various university fellowship groups in other to enable them function well.

            If it is possible, the authority should be mapping out fund from the university budget that will be allocated to this fellowship groups and also put the necessary machinery in place to curb the activities of the bad fellowship groups in UNEC that do have negative impact on the life of the students.

            That way, the tertiary institutions in the country and UNEC in particular will be a safe haven for academic activities to take place, which means that students will carry out their academic activities without fear of molestation.




Confraternities in Nigeria-Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved Feb.27, 2013 from


Confraternity-wikipedia-the free encyclopedia. Retrieved Feb.25, 2013 from


Fraternity-wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved Feb. 27, 2013 from


Ikwuemesi, C. (2012). Astride memory and desire: people’s culture and development in Nigeria, Enugu. (Pp.96, 228-242). Nigeria: ABC Books.


Iroko, M. (2002). Origin of cultism in Nigeria. Retrieved Feb. 25, 2013 from reference answers website


The Retrieved  Feb.27, 2013 from


Whemeier, C. (2005). Oxford advanced learner’s dictionary, 7th edition. Oxford university press: London.

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According to Glautier and Underwood in Dr. Emengini book titled COST AND MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING IN FOCUS, “cost is essentially the money measurement of the sacrifice which an organization has to make in order to achieve its objective.
In the issue of cost and cost concept, the view of the accountant and that of the economist defers. Both professionals view cost from different perspective.
The accounting cost includes all such business expenses that are recorded in the book of accounts of a business firm as acceptable by the business expenses. Such expenses include; cost of raw material, wages and salaries, various direct and indirect business overhead, depreciation, taxes etc. when such business expenses or accounting expenses are deducted from sales income of any firm, the accounting profit is obtained
Accounting cost: various allowed business expenses. Such as cost of raw material, salaries and wages, electricity bill, telephone charges, various administrative expenses etc.
Accounting profit = sales – accounting cost
The concept of the accountant on the term “cost concept” is also applicable to concept “explicit cost” and “money cost”
Explicit Cost
Accounting cost come from the total explicit cost of the company during the fiscal year. Accounting cost does not include implicit cost resulting from
Unused resources. Explicit costs with defined monetary values are factored into the accounting cost of the company to calculate net income at the end of the fiscal year. For example, if the company spends N100, 000 on employee wages, N50, 000 on equipment purchase and N20, 000 on inventory, the total accounting cost are N170, 000.
To calculate the accounting the accounting profit for the fiscal year, accountants look only to the accounting cost and profit of the company. Accountants do not need economic cost information to create their income statement. For example, accountants are not concerned if the company could have made N3, 000 per month from leasing its equipment for a total of N36,000 during the fiscal year- the N36, 000 does not come out of the gross profit for the company.
Money Cost
Money cost of production is the actual monetary expenditure us made by company in the production process. Money cost thus includes all the business expenses which involve outlay of money to support business operation. For example monetary expenditure on purchase of raw material, payment of wages and salaries, payment of rent and other charges of business, etc can be termed as money cost which is applicable to cost concept on the view of the accountant.
The economic cost on the other hand includes all the accounting expenses as well as the opportunity cost of a business firm. Economic profit is thus calculated as follows:
Economic cost = Accounting Cost (explicit cost) + Opportunity Cost.
Economic Profit = Total Revenue – (Accounting Cost + Opportunity Cost)
Economic costs are not typically recorded in the accounting books of companies. Accountants focus on the hard, explicit costs from operations during the year when creating financial reports. Economic costs are usually considered when a strategic decision involving opportunity. For instance, if a company wants to close an operating location and rent it out to another business, the company must consider the economic cost of loosing that operation versus the accounting profit from its rent.
The concept of the economist on the term “cost concept” is also applicable to concept “implicit cost” and “real cost”
Implicit Cost
Unlike accounting cost, economic cost considers both the explicit and implicit cost of the company that occurs during the fiscal year. Implicit costs are associated with resources that are provided to the company with no price tag. For example, if a company operates out of a building it owns, it experiences an implicit cost from rent it could earn from leasing the building to another company. The building could earn N3, 000 a month from a commercial renter, so the company has an implicit cost of has an implicit cost of N3, 000 to add to its economic cost.
Real Cost
Real cost of production or business operation on the other hand includes all such expenses/costs of business which may or may not involve actual monetary expenditure. For example if an owner of a business venture uses his personal land and building for running the business venture and he/she does not charge any rent for the same, then such will not be considered/included while computing the money cost but this will be part of the real cost computation. Here the cost involved is the opportunity cost of the land and building for the business venture then the land and the building could have been used elsewhere for some other venture and could have generated come income for the promoter. This income/rent which could have been earned under the next best investment option is the opportunity cost which needs to be considered while calculating the real cost for the firm.

In the book of Dr. Emengini, noise in an accounting system occurs when there is transfer of errors calculation errors, thus reducing the accuracy reliability of the output from the system. Noise may not be eliminated completely but can be minimized by ensuring that self checking device are built in when the data is been analyzed and collected for inclusion in the accounting reports.
According to, noise is the distortion that is caused in a company’s financial statement due to accounting rules and regulations that must be followed. Which have been negatively or positively manipulated?
According to, accounting noise can be seen as either a consequence of necessary rules regarding generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) or a result of managements attempt to massage the numbers to present a rosier financial picture of the firm. For example, a company that have undergone a significant merger may look very unprofitable on the income statement because the merger may cause serious one time charges for the company; it may be useful for investors to cut through the accounting noise to get a more accurate picture of the company’s prospect.
Dr Jesse Scott in his article has is that accounting noise is the act of making a firms financial situation look better or worse than it really is by using or abusing the generally accepted accounting principles. Accounting noise is to certain extent, inevitable, as succinct statements very rarely give a full and complete picture of a firm’s financial state. For this reason, potential and current investors are often advised to read the footnotes of financial statements to see a fuller picture. Accounting noise may make a firm look better by showing many one-time-only sales or worse by showing one-time only expenses. Most of the time, accounting noise is incidental, but the GAAP, to manipulate earnings in order to make them look healthy when they are not.

An underperforming company could engage in earnings manipulation, creating accounting noise to hide its poor performance.
Accounting noise makes it difficult for investors to easily ascertain a company’s true financial condition.
Accounting noise can make a company’s financial/income statement or reports look better of worse.
Some companies intentionally create accounting noise in their organization in other for their income statement look rosier.


Emengini, S. E. ( 2007), Cost And Management Accounting In focus, Chizo Press, Enugu, Nigeria.

Scott, j. (2006), an article on accounting concept and accounting noise and its impact to a company’s statement of account

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uniben post utme 2011/2012

          The University of Benin (UNIBEN) Post – UTME Screening Exercise for 2011/2012 academic session will take place on Friday 2nd September 2011 and Saturday 3rd September 2011 in designated centres within Ugbowo Campus of UNIBEN. All candidates are expected to be seated, latest, one hour before the stipulated time for the screening exercise.
            Only the candidates who chose UNIBEN as First Choice and scored 200 and above in the UTME are eligible to participate in the Screening Exercise.
The following are the procedures for the 2011/2012 Post – UTME Screening applications. All applications will be done on the e-campus portal between Monday, August 8, 2011 and Sunday, August 21, 2011.
1.                  Log on to and click on ‘ONLINE APPLICATIONS’ link on the site to display the Application page.
2.                  On the Application page, click ‘REGULAR’ under programme to display Payment Details.
3.                  On Payment Details page, click “Click here for PIN” (Please note the PIN and keep it safe, this is what you will be using to gain access to your application details).
4.                  Click on ‘Start Application’ after the PIN has been generated and noted by you. The next page that will display is the JAMB Details Page.
5.                  Enter your UTME Registration Number in the Jamb Registration Number box and click the ‘Search’ Button to display your UTME information.
6.                  Select your second and third choice courses.  Click Next to display the Upload Passport Photograph Page.
Each candidate will be required to upload on-line, a 1” x 1” COLOUR
Passport photograph with RED background in JPEG format only. NOTE
that the photograph uploaded will be the only valid ID for all admitted candidates throughout their stay in the University of Benin.
7.                  On the Upload Passport Photograph Page, click the ‘Upload Passport’ link to select your passport photograph. Please preview and confirm that your passport being uploaded is your correct picture as uploaded passport cannot be changed after uploading. After selecting the picture, you are required to wait for it to fully upload, then click next to display the Payments Slip Page
8.                  Click on Print Slip to print the Payment Confirmation Slip and take it to any of the University designated banks.
9.         Proceed with the printed Payment Confirmation Slip obtained in 8 above to any of the banks listed below nationwide:
*Access Bank, PLC
* Oceanic Bank, PLC
* Bank PHB, PLC
* UBA Bank, PLC
* Fidelity Bank, PLC
* Unity Bank, PLC
* First Bank, PLC
* WEMA Bank, PLC
* Intercontinental Bank, PLC
* Zenith Bank, PLC
* Diamond Bank, PLC
* FCMB Bank, PLC
* Guaranty Trust Bank, PLC
* Eco Bank, PLC
* Afribank, PLC
10.       Present the Payment Confirmation Slip to the e-Tranzact desk officer and pay PUTME screening fee of one thousand Naira (N1000:00) and obtain an e-Tranzact payment confirmation receipt immediately.
11.       After payment, proceed online to complete your application procedure.
12.       You will be required to enter your Application PIN (obtained when you started your
           application in 3 above to gain access)
13.       After the Payment Slip Page, click Next to display your Screening Schedule Slip
           which has the schedule of your screening test including the date, time, venue and
           other instructions. You will be required to come to the venue of the screening test
           with your Screening Schedule Slip. Click Next to display the Finish Page.
14.     Click on ‘Click here to view/Print Submitted details’ to view and print a summary
          of your application. If you are sure you are done with the application, please click
          ‘Close Application’ to finally submit your application. You will not be able to edit
          any part of the application once your application is closed. Only closed       
          applications will be attended to.
The grouping of courses, days and times of the screening exercise
are as indicated below:
S/N     GROUP                                             DATE OF SCREENING                TIME
1          Social Sciences                                  Friday 2nd Sept., 2011                     9.00am
            Management Sciences
            Education-Soc. Sciences
            Education-Mgt Sciences
2          Engineering                                      Friday 2nd Sept., 2011                     2.00p.m
            Physical Sciences
            Education – Physical Sciences
3          Medicine                                           Saturday 3rd Sept., 2011                 9.00a.m
            Basic Medical Sciences
            Life Sciences
            Education-Biological Sciences
4          Law                                                    Saturday 3rd Sept., 2011                 2.00p.m
            Education Arts
Candidates are to come to the screening centres with the following:
(a)        Original and one photocopy of the e-Tranzact Payment Receipt and Screening Schedule Slip for identification and submission of Photocopies.
(b)       Four Figure Table (where applicable)
(c)        Writing materials (HB pencil and Eraser).
NOTE that GSM phones and calculators are NOT allowed.
Application website closes by midnight on Sunday, 21st August, 2011 (i.e. all applications must be concluded on-line not later than mid-night of Sunday, 21st August, 2011).
Candidate who paid after the deadline will not sit for the examination.
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the unn 2011/2012 post utme.

This is to inform all prospective candidates of the UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA,NSUKKA that the screening test will take place at the NSUKKA campus only.Candidates are to purchase the scratch card at any branch of first bank,and diamond bank within the federation..or unn microfinance bank for #1000..the sale of the card and online registration will start on tuesday 2nd august and end on saturday 13th august..The exam is scheduled to take place from thursday 18th to saturday 20th august…for more info call ENEMUO EBUKA… OR me on 2go with enemuoebuka or with my phone number. 07039127302
below is the schedule of the post utme.


The University of Nigeria, Nsukka hereby invites candidates who made her either their first or second choice in the 2011 Universities Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) and scored 200 or above for screening.

The screening will be conducted only at the Nsukka campus of the University as follows:

DATE: Thursday, August 18, 2011

Faculty of Dentistry
Faculty of Health Sciences & Technology
Faculty of Medical Sciences
Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine
DATE: Friday, August 19, 2011

Faculty of Arts
Faculty of Education
Faculty of Law
Faculty of the Social Sciences (including all candidates who applied for Public Admin. & Local Govt.)
DATE: Saturday, August 20, 2011

Faculty of Agriculture
Faculty of Biological Sciences
Faculty of Business Administration
Faculty of Engineering
Faculty of Environmental Studies (including all candidates who applied for Surveying & Geoinformatics)
Faculty of Physical Sciences


Eligible candidates should pay a processing fee of One thousand Naira (N1,000) and obtain a scratch card for online pre-registration at any branch of
First Bank of Nigeria Plc,
Diamond Bank Plc, in the major cities of the Federation, and
the University of Nigeria Micro-Finance Banks at Enugu and Nsukka.
Online Pre-registration commences on Tuesday, August 02, 2011 and ends on Saturday, August 13, 2011. Those who fail to register within this period will not be screened.
With the scratch card, first choice candidates should access and complete the University of Nigeria 2011/2012 Post-UTME screening form online at Second choice candidates should also complete the form online at the same website as the first choice candidates; however they must scan on the form, their recent passport-sized photographs with red background, showing the ears, no cap and no eye glasses.
(i) Blurred scanned passport photograph will disqualify an applicant.
(ii) First choice candidates must not scan any passport photograph on their forms.
All candidates are required to bring the following for the screening exercise:
(i)A copy of ONLINE form duly completed, carrying the passport-sized photograph;
(ii)2011/2012 JAMB slip
(iii)HB Pencil and Eraser.
No GSM handsets, calculators or any other extraneous materials should be brought into the screening halls.
Information on the halls for the screening will be made available at the campus and on the University of Nigeria website, a day to the screening dates.

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unn post utme

for all you information about UNN post utme, just stray tuned here and you will get all the gist here.
there is no other better place to be other than the DYNAFLEXVIBES word press.

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playing the cool guy.

i used to play the mr nice guy, i never knew what i was doing to my self untill the girl that i asked ou told me that it is better we become friends first, i blindly accepted. she even told me that she no longer have a boy friend, that gave me a false hope that come day, she will have to change her mind about me, i never knew i was mistaken. after every thing, i found out she was actualy lying about her relationship status. she have a boy friends. from that day, i hated her, not because she made be become friends first and spend unnecessarily, but because she lied about her slef. so guys, what i am saying is that, any girl that is telling you that you are better of been a friend, let her go, but if you can be able to summon the courage too stay, then go ahead and stay. but if you cant, you should have to let har know that once you can not fit in as a boy friend, that means you can as well not fit in as just a friend.

though, some times, it works out for some people, for there is a popular say that FRIENDS  OFTEN END IN LOVE, BUT LOVE IN FRIENDSHIP, NEVER.

so brethren. listen to your self and follow what your heart tells you.

take care.

i am enemuo chukwuebuka Ephraim and i stay in my home country Nigeria, for more information, you can call me on +2347039127302 or check me out on Facebook by following the link below

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why do girls that have crush on a guy not allowed to talk to the guy/.

some time i just imagine why girls do not talk to a guy, even when the know that they are having a crush on the guy. my sister once told me that no matter how a girl is tripping for a guy from the back, that she will be ready to be dying silently because of what she called the “GIRL CODE”
that is only know to girls why they can’t speak up when the need be.

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Hello world!

Welcome to This is your first post. Edit or delete it and start blogging!

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